A measure of a substance’s resistance to the transfer of heat. The higher the number, the greater the resistance.

Ratchet Charges

Ratchet charges (also called Demand Charges) are based on your 12 month billing history, and is the demand rate used to calculate your charges. The purpose of Billed Demand charges is to reflect peak seasonal demands. Ratchet charges reflect either the maximum demand during the previous eleven months or the maximum demand during the previous summer months, or 100% of the current month’s use — whichever is highest.

Reactive Power Charges (kVAR)

Power factor is a measure of how effectively the current delivered to a motor is converted into useful energy. KVAR reflects the extent that current and voltage cycle in phase. The best and most efficient power factor is 100%, which occurs when current and voltage are perfectly in phase. kVAR is shown as a percentage.

Real-Time Pricing (RTP)

Real-Time Pricing enables customers using very large amounts of energy to buy surplus energy real-time on the energy market at reduced rates.


A substance, such as Freon, which produces a cooling effect by absorption of heat while expanding or vaporizing.


Thermal and/or equipment improvements made to an existing building to increase the structure’s energy efficiency.